**First Order (6db/octave) Two-Way
Crossover
**

Phase shift on a first-order crossover is 90 degrees. |

**Second Order (12db/octave) Two-Way
Crossover
**

- Linkwitz-Riley crossovers match attenuation slopes so that
system response is flat at crossover point. |

**Third Order (18db/octave) Two-Way
Crossover **

Phase shift on a third-order crossover is 270 degrees (-90 degrees). |

**Fourth order (24dB/octave) Two-Way
Crossover **

The phase shift on a fourth-order crossover is 360 degrees = 0 degrees (no phase shift). |

**Zobel Circuit (Impedance
Stabilization) **

- Even though speakers are rated at a certain
"resistance" (i.e. 4 Ohms), the actual impedance varies with frequency (speakers
have inductance). To compensate for the non-linearity of speakers (on mainly subwoofers),
Zobel circuits are used. |

**L-pad (Speaker Attenuation) **

- An L-pad circuit will attenuate a speaker. |

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